Reference: Simon Huband, Phil Hingston, Luigi Barone, and Lyndon While. A Review of Multi-objective Test Problems and a Scalable Test Problem Toolkit. IEEE Transactions on Evolutionary Computation, volume 10, no 5, pages 477-506. IEEE, October 2007.
Reference:.D. Schaffer. Multiple Objective Optimization with Vector Evaluated Genetic Algorithms. In J.J. Grefensttete, editor, Proc. of the First International Conference on Genetic Algorithms (ICGA), pages 93–100, Hillsdale, NJ, 1987.
Features: two objectives, N numbers of variables (default: N = 3)
Reference:F. Kursawe. A Variant of Evolution Strategies for Vector Optimization. In
H.P. Schwefel and R. M¨nner, editors, Parallel Problem Solving for Nature, volume 496 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pages 193-197, Berlin, Germany, 1990. Springer-Verlag.
Reference: C.M. Fonseca and P.J. Flemming. Multiobjective Optimization and Multiple Constraint Handling with Evolutionary Algorithms - Part II: Application Example. IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man and Cybernetics, 28:38-47, 1998.